The Long Range Identification and Tracking (LRIT) is a global satellite-based system for real-time identification and tracking of ships navigating around the world. The system is managed and maintained by the European Maritime Safety Agency (EMSA) and was introduced in Norway in 2009.
LRIT is a closed system aimed for contracting government such as: Coastal State; Flag State; Port State; and SAR Authorities. Other national public authorities are also users of the system.
The UN's International Maritime Organization (IMO) has decided that the LRIT requirements apply to ships engaged on international voyages as follows:
- Passenger ships, including high-speed passenger craft,
- Cargo ships, including high-speed craft, of 300 GT, and
- Mobile offshore drilling units.
Ship LRIT Reporting and equipment
- All ships over 300 gross tonnes that are registered to operate in international waters (meaning outside A1 area) are required to possess an LRIT certificate (LRIT Conformance Test Report). Military and fishing vessels are exempt from this rule.
- For the initial registration of new LRIT ships, or for a change of ship's flag or LRIT shipborne equipment, the LRIT unit must be checked by an authorized Application Service Provider (ASP).
- The LRIT certificate is in practice an approval that the LRIT equipment on board functions properly. This approval is based on tests carried out by an ASP (Application Service Provider) who quality assures that the LRIT equipment on board the ship is able to transmit data every six hours a day and over a period of 48 hours.
The LRIT system consists of main elements such as the ship borne LRIT information transmitting equipment, Communications Service Providers (CSPs), Application Service Providers (ASPs), LRIT Data Centers (DC), including any related Vessel Monitoring System(s) (VMSs), the IMO LRIT Data Distribution Plan (DDP) and the International LRIT Data Exchange (IDE). The system uses satellites communication such as: Inmarsat C; Inmarsat mini C; Iridium; Inmarsat D+, etc.
- The Norwegian Coastal Administration is the National Competent Authority (NCA) for LRIT in Norway and manages the Norwegian part of the LRIT database on behalf of the Norwegian authorities.
- The Norwegian Coastal Administration registers, corrects and updates data on ships that sail under the Norwegian flag in the European LRIT database. The LRIT database is managed by the EU's Maritime Safety Agency (EMSA) in Lisbon.
- Ships have equipment on board that automatically transmits information on the identity, date/time and position of the ship every six hours via satellite to the EU's LRIT database.
- The Norwegian Maritime Directorate has the authority to enforce that the LRIT regulations are observed on board.
- LRIT is based on data from INMARSAT and IRIDIUM.
- The Norwegian Coastal Administration administers access to the LRIT database on behalf of the Norwegian authorities and grants system access to public authorities that would like to use the data from the system in the performance of their administrative tasks.
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